Teach students to read fractions using their names, such as “five sixths”, rather than as one number “over” another, as in “five over six”.

With pictures or physical models, students should see that if the denominators of two fractions are the same, that means the pieces are able to be added.

The traditional algorithms for addition and subtraction of common fractions is done horizontally. A newer method is to align the two fractions vertically, which is consistent with whole number and decimal fraction adding and subtracting.